Wikipedia:Edward T. Hall was a pioneer in explaining cultural contexts. He broke things down into high-context (where many things are taken for granted) and low-context culture (where very little is taken for granted). He also explained different views on time and space.
Wikipedia:Geerte Hofstede is an influential Dutch sociologist who studied the interaction between national and organizational cultures.
M-Time vs P-Time
Monochronic Time (M-Time) is when you do things in discrete, scheduled chunks. Monochronic people tend to be low-context.
Polychronic Time (P-Time) is when interaction is valued over deadlines.
Proxemics is the study of space. Hall broke this down into high territoriality and low territoriality.
Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions
- Power Distance Index. The extent to which less powerful members accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
- Individualism vs Collectivism. Loose vs strong ties.
- Masculinity vs Femininity. Distribution of roles between genders. The hypothesis is that women's values differ less across different societies than men's. Assertiveness is "masculine," and modest caring is "feminine."
- Uncertainty Avoidance Index. Tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.
- Long-Term Orientation vs Short-Term Orientation.